国家面临着癌症的挑战: 每天有超过7500例癌症死亡估计


January 26, 2016—A new report estimates there were 4.3 million new cancer cases and more than 2.8 million cancer deaths in China in 2015, with lung cancer the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in China.

With increasing incidence and mortality, cancer is the leading cause of death in China and is a major public health problem. But China’s massive population (1.37 billion) has limited previous national incidence and mortality estimates to small samples of the population (less than 2%) using data from the 1990s or based on a specific year.

Recently, high-quality data from an additional number of population-based registries has been available through the National Central Cancer Registry of China. For the new report, Cancer Statistics in China, 2015, published in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, researchers led by Wanqing Chen, PhD, MD, of the National Cancer Center in Beijing, analyzed data from 72 local, population-based cancer registries (2009-2011), representing 6.5% of the population.

The report finds:

It is predicted that there will be about 4,292,000 newly diagnosed invasive cancer cases in 2015 in China, corresponding to an average of almost 12,000 new cancer diagnoses each day.
Among men, the five most common cancers are: cancers of the lung, stomach, esophagus, liver, and colorectum, which together account for about two-thirds of all cancer cases.
Among women, the most common cancers are breast, lung and bronchus, stomach, colorectum, and esophagus, accounting for nearly 60% of all cases. Breast cancer alone is expected to account for 15% of all new cancers in women in China.
It is estimated that about 2,814,000 Chinese will die from cancer in 2015, corresponding to over 7500 cancer deaths on average per day.
The five leading causes of cancer death among both men and women in China are cancers of the lung and bronchus, stomach, liver, esophagus, and colorectum, accounting for about three-quarters of all cancer deaths.
Similar to the incidence rates, the mortality rate for all cancers combined is substantially higher in men than in women (165.9 vs 88.8 per 100,000) and in rural areas than in urban areas.
For all cancers combined, the incidence rates were stable during 2000 through 2011 for males (10.2% per year), whereas they increased significantly (12.2% per year) among females.
In contrast, the mortality rates since 2006 have decreased significantly for both males (21.4% per year) and females (21.1% per year).
Despite this favorable trend, the number of cancer deaths substantially increased (73.8% increase) during the corresponding period because of the aging and growth of the population.
Much cancer and many cancer deaths in China could be prevented through reducing the prevalence of risk factors, while increasing the effectiveness of clinical care delivery, particularly for those living in rural areas and in disadvantaged populations.
The largest contributor to avoidable cancer deaths in China is chronic infection, which is estimated to account for 29% of cancer deaths, predominantly from stomach cancer (H. pylori), liver cancer (HBV and HCV), and cervical cancer (HPV).
Tobacco smoking accounted for about one-quarter of all cancer deaths in China; yet over one-half of adult Chinese men were current smokers in 2010, and smoking rates in adolescents and young adults are still rising.
Outdoor air pollution, considered to be among the worst in the world, indoor air pollution through heating and cooking using coal and other biomass fuels, and the contamination of soil and drinking water mean that the Chinese population is exposed to many environmental carcinogens.

Article: Cancer Statistics in China, 2015, CA: Cancer J for Clin, Published early online January 26, 2016 doi: 10.3322/caac.21338.

Authors: Wanqing Chen, PhD, MD, Rongshou Zheng, MPH, Siwei Zhang, BMedSc, Hongmei Zeng, PhD, MD, Jie He, MD, National Cancer Center, Beijing, China; Peter D. Baade, PhD, Cancer Council Queensland; Freddie Bray, PhD, International Agency for Research on Cancer; Ahmedin Jemal, DVM, PhD, American Cancer Society; Xue Qin Yu, PhD, MPH, Cancer Council New South Wales, University of Sydney

Cancer has gradually become a national public health challenge that affected on average 12,000 Chinese and killed 7,500 every day last year, according to a new report.
There were an estimated 4.3 million new cancer diagnoses in the country last year and 2.8 million deaths, researchers said in the report CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, published on behalf of the American Cancer Society.
In 2012, when figures were last released, there were an estimated 3.12 million new diagnoses and 2.7 million deaths.
The latest report was led by Chen Wanqing, director of the Chinese National Central Cancer Registry at the National Health and Family Planning Commission. It was based on data from 72 local cancer registries between 2009 and 2011, representing 6.5 percent of the population.
Chen said cancer cases are expected to continue rising in China, citing increased environmental risk factors such as smoking, infections and exposure to water and air pollution.
Smoking led to more than 20 percent of the preventable cancer cases in China and accounted for 25 percent of all cancer deaths, the report said.
The most prevalent forms were lung, stomach, liver and esophageal cancers, accounting for 57 percent of the total.
The most common forms affecting men were lung, stomach, esophageal, liver and colorectal cancers. Among women, breast cancer was the most prevalent, accounting for 15 percent of new cases, followed by lung, stomach, colorectal and esophageal cancers.
Worldwide, nearly 22 percent of the new cancer cases and 27 percent of the deaths occurred in China, according to the World Health Organization.
Bernhard Schwartl?nder, the WHO representative in China, said preventable cancers account for nearly 60 percent of the nation’s cases.
Many of the cases are linked to unhealthy lifestyles, he said, urging the Chinese government to recognize the challenge and intervene — “primarily with smoking controls.”
But mortality rates in China have dropped by about 21 percent annually for both men and women since 2006, according to the report. However, total cancer deaths increased by 74 percent during the same period, the report said.
Regionally, the highest death rate from cancer was recorded in Southwest China, followed by North China.
Chen said the survival rate is much lower in China compared with Western countries, citing a poor early detection rate domestically.
In China, 29 percent of cancer deaths were related to chronic infections such as Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium usually found in the stomach, hepatitis B infections that caused liver cancer, and the human papillomavirus that caused cervical cancer, the report said.
Chen said the more people the registry could cover, the more accurately the spread of cancer could be understood.
“That will help the authorities to design evidence-based and more-targeted intervention programs,” he said.
The registry is expected to include 40 percent of China’s population of 1.36 billion by 2020.

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